- Correct errors by making appropriate changes and rechecking the program to ensure that the desired results are produced.
- Conduct trial runs of programs and software applications to be sure they will produce the desired information and that the instructions are correct.
- Write, update, and maintain computer programs or software packages to handle specific jobs such as tracking inventory, storing or retrieving data, or controlling other equipment.
- Write, analyze, review, and rewrite programs, using workflow chart and diagram, and applying knowledge of computer capabilities, subject matter, and symbolic logic.
- Perform or direct revision, repair, or expansion of existing programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements.
- Consult with managerial, engineering, and technical personnel to clarify program intent, identify problems, and suggest changes.
- Perform systems analysis and programming tasks to maintain and control the use of computer systems software as a systems programmer.
- Compile and write documentation of program development and subsequent revisions, inserting comments in the coded instructions so others can understand the program.
- Prepare detailed workflow charts and diagrams that describe input, output, and logical operation, and convert them into a series of instructions coded in a computer language.
- Consult with and assist computer operators or system analysts to define and resolve problems in running computer programs.
Tools & TechnologyTools used in this occupation:
|Mainframe computers — Mainframe operating systems|
|Serial port cards|
|Compiler and decompiler software — Command interpreters; Just-in-time compiler; Stage compiler; Threaded code compiler|
|Data base management system software — Microsoft SQL Server; MySQL software; Oracle procedural language/structured query language PL/SQL; Pick software|
|Data base user interface and query software — dBASE Plus; IEA Software Emerald; Microsoft Access; Structured query language SQL|
|Development environment software — C; Microsoft Visual Basic; Tier generator software; Xerces2 Java Parser|
|Object or component oriented development software — C++; Greatis Object Inspector; PowerSoft PowerBuilder; Python|
|Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.|
|English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.|
|Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.|
|Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.|
|Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.|
|Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.|
|Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.|
|Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.|
|Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.|
|Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.|
|Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.|
|Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.|
|Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.|
|Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.|
|Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.|
|Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.|
|Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).|
|Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).|
|Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.|
|Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.|
|Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).|
|Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.|
|Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.|
|Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.|
|Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.|
|Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.|
|Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.|
|Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.|
|Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.|
|Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.|
|Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.|
|Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.|
|Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.|
|Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.|
|Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.|
|Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?|
|Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?|
|Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?|
|Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?|
|Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?|
|Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?|
|Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?|
|Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?|
|Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.|
|Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?|
|Title||Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed|
|Education||Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.|
|Related Experience||A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.|
|Job Training||Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.|
|Job Zone Examples||Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, teachers, chemists, environmental engineers, criminal investigators, and special agents.|
|SVP Range||(7.0 to < 8.0)|
Computer Programmer; Programmer, Engineering and Scientific
To learn about specific apprenticeship opportunities, please consult the U.S. Department of Labor State Apprenticeship Information website.
For general information about apprenticeships, training, and partnerships with business, visit the U.S. Department of Labor Office of Apprenticeship website.
Percentage of Respondents
|Education Level Required|
|11||Some college, no degree|
|6||High school diploma or equivalent|
Computer Science — Computer and Information Sciences, General; Computer Graphics; Computer Programming, Specific Applications; Computer Programming/Programmer, General; Management Information Systems, General; Medical Office Computer Specialist/Assistant
InterestsInterest code: IC
|Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.|
|Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.|
|Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.|
|Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.|
|Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.|
|Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.|
|Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.|
|Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.|
|Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.|
|Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.|
|Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.|
|Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.|
|Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.|
|Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.|
|Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.|